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The most important terms in online marketing

Understanding online marketing is not easy. Because almost all terms come from the English language - and often stand for rather complicated contexts. We explain their meaning, because understanding them is crucial in internet wine marketing.

Page Impressions (PI)

Page impression means page call. A page impression (actually "page impression" would be more correct) is the complete call of a web page by a user. If you have a wine shop on the Internet and one user visits your shop and visits 10 pages in succession, then that is 10 page impressions. If 10 different visitors each call up one page, then that is also 10 page impressions.

The number of page impressions is a good measure of how intensively a particular website is used by users on the Internet. When interpreting the number, it is important to know how page impressions are measured. Many providers on the internet use the so-called log file analysis for measurement. The log file analysis also (partly) measures page impressions that are generated by the spiders of the search engines. This leads to significantly higher figures than if only human visitors are counted, as is the case with the so-called pixel analysis. At wein.plus we only use the more serious and restrictive pixel analysis.

Synonyms for page impression are "page view", "visual contact" or "page call". Please do not confuse page impression with "clicks" or "hits". PI is often used as a short form.

By the way: Have you ever thought about why picture galleries, quote shows or a quiz are so popular on many Webpages? Or why many long articles are often spread over so many pages? The user has to click through a lot of pages because of this preparation. This drives up the number of page impressions, which has a positive effect on image and advertising revenue (but not necessarily on user-friendliness). Such elements are therefore often referred to as page impression boosters.

Pixel analysis / Log file analysis

There are two fundamentally different methods of measuring the intensity and type of use of a website:

  • Pixel analysis: Here, a small, invisible image in the size of 1×1 pixel is built into a website. The call-up of this pixel is then evaluated and used to generate statistics. The great advantage of this is that automatic access to a website by spiders or robots does not usually lead to a call-up of this image. Pixel analysis is used by all professional service providers such as Google-Analytics or Etracker, etc
  • Logfile analysis: A web server writes every call of a website into a log file (=logfile). This log file can then be analysed by special software. However, since all accesses are logged here, automated accesses must first be filtered out in a complex process. This is done more or less well (depending on the webmaster's need for recognition). Log file analysis is rarely used in the professional sector today. In the wine sector, however, there are providers who still prefer to communicate the statistics of log file analysis; simply because they look better.

SearchEngine Optimisation (SEO)

Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) includes all activities that serve the goal of having your website appear as high as possible in the results of a search engine. SEO does not refer to the separate advertisements (see SEM), but to the generic search results. These are not for sale, but each search engine uses a comprehensive set of methods (algorithms) here that determine the order.

The search engines use two main criteria:

  • How relevant is the searched term represented on the page?
    For example, if a user searches for "wine from Romania", it is crucial whether this (or a similar) term appears in the title of the page, in the URL of the page or in the text, and how often.
    All steps in SEO that start here are called internal optimisation, as they only change the page itself.
  • How important is the respective page for the searched term on the Internet?
    There are also many criteria for this that search engines analyse. The most important criterion is how many links from other important pages refer to this page. So if a page on the topic of wine and/or Romania that is important from the search engine's point of view links to your page, then from the search engine's point of view your own page is also important for the search term "wine from Romania".
    All steps in SEO that start here are called external optimisation, as they do not take place on the page itself, but on other pages.

There is not enough space here in the glossary to go into specific SEO tips for the wine industry.


Targeting is the magic word for effective online advertising. Targeting is about reaching my target group as effectively as possible with as little money as possible. In essence, targeting allows you to display (and pay for) an advertisement only when it is seen by a user who is relevant to me.


  • A vintner wants to advertise an open day in order to attract new customer groups. To do this, he analyses his potential target group and will find that mainly visitors who live within a radius of 50 km come into question. Furthermore, the visitors mainly come from a target group that is open-minded about wine.
    When he now promotes the open day, he will talk to the online advertising provider and ask him to specifically reach these target groups. The big advantage: with relatively little advertising input (page impressions or number of e-mails etc.) he will reach exactly his target audience, reduce wastage and - in relation to his effort - achieve an optimal result.
  • A wine merchant wants to promote his offer for the gastronomy. He is able to send his goods nationwide and therefore sees his target group in the whole of Germany.
    Here, ideal targeting would be to address only restaurateurs based in Germany.

How does targeting work using the example of wein.plus?

  • Email marketing: Wein-Plus has a lot of information about its users in its database. Retailers, restaurateurs, end customers and other user groups are known. In addition, we have the address in many cases. Advertising mails can now be sent specifically to users who meet certain criteria. Place of residence, user group and other data can be evaluated for this purpose.
    Precise targeting is important in the interest of the recipient; this way, he or she only receives emails that are relevant to him or her. But also for the advertiser, because he only pays for contacts that are really relevant.
    More information about the standalone e-mail.
  • SearchEngine Marketing: The advertisements displayed by search engines such as Google are selected depending on the search term and other information about the user available to the search engine (e.g., previously visited Webpages). This makes these ads highly relevant to the users. We offer a very successful service in the context of community advertising.

Open rate, opening rate

At E-mail marketing the open rate is a good indicator of the success of an email. On request (please specify when placing your order), we will also be happy to determine the opening rate for your standalone email.
The open rate (theoretically) measures the ratio between the number of emails sent and the number of recipients who have opened (i.e. viewed) them.

Unfortunately, the calculated open rate is always much lower than the actual open rate. This is due to the measurement method and the fact that many email programmes only open images on request. The "MailPrivacy Protection" update announced in autumn 2021 will once again increase the deviations between the measured and actual opening rate.

Nevertheless, in comparison it is a good indicator of the effect of the sender, subject line and preheader. For example, you can compare the effect of a subject line by sending the same email with different subject lines to different recipients and then comparing the open rates of both mailings.

In practice with a standalone email, a measured open rate of 20% is satisfactory, but we have also achieved more than 50%. As described above, the actual number of opens (not measurable) is far higher.

Click rate gross/net

In addition to the opening rate, the click rate is also an important indicator. The click rate measures the ratio of clicks on links in the e-mail to the number of recipients. With the gross click rate, every click counts here; with the net click rate, a click by a recipient only counts once. The net click rate is often also referred to as the "unique click rate".

We will inform you of the gross click rate for your campaign on request (please specify when placing your order).

Theoretically, the net click rate can be a maximum of 100%, the gross click rate can also be higher.
In practice, for a standalone e-mail, a gross click rate of 10% is satisfactory. Of course, it should also be noted that some campaigns (e.g. invitations to events) are not primarily aimed at a click, so that for such campaigns the click rate has almost no significance.

Effective click-through rate

The effective click rate measures the ratio of clicks to opens. Again, there is the difference between gross opens and net opens described above.
The effective click rate can easily be determined from the ratio of the click rate to the open rate. For example, if the opening rate is 10% and the click rate is 5%, then the effective click rate is 50%.

But be careful: here, too, the measurement inaccuracy of the click rate must be taken into account. The effective net click rate can therefore also be more than 100%. The effective gross click rate anyway. Anyone who has understood the two sentences above has also understood the differences between net, gross and effective click rate.

Thousand-Contact-Price (CPM)

The thousand-contact price is the price of an advertising service for 1 000 visual contacts of an advertisement. For example, if an advertisement costs 500 Euros and is seen by 5,000 users, the CPM is: 500/(5,000/1,000 ) = 100 Euros.

The CPM serves as an indicator for the cost-benefit ratio of an advertising service for many types of media.

For online advertising, the CPM is the ratio of costs to page impressions. If an online campaign has one million page impressions and costs 50,000 euros, the CPM is 50 euros.

The CPM is often used as a basis for calculating online advertising. If you book a campaign where the CPM is e.g. 15 euros, then the price for the advertisement is calculated as follows: Number of page impressions * CPM / 1 000

Cost per order (CPO)

This value expresses how much advertising expenditure was necessary on average for an order or a contract.

For example, if an advertising campaign costs 5,000 Euros and generates 500 orders, the CPO is 10 Euros.

Visit / Unique Visit

A visit is a visit to a website by a user. It is not relevant how many pages the user calls up. As long as the user remains on the website, it is always a visit. If the same user visits the website a second time, it is a second visit.

A "unique visit" is a visit by a unique user within a period of time. In the example above, the second visit by the same user would result in two visits, but only one unique visit.

The method by which web analytics tools attempt to uniquely identify a user also varies. Here, the IP address, cookies and other user data play a central role.


The pre-header is the first text of an email. Frequently, email programs not only display the sender and subject line of an email, but also the pre-header. Therefore, the pre-header is an important element in optimising a stand-alone email.

Nofollow links

Google attaches great importance to not distorting the link relevance of a page through paid links. In order to mark paid links as such, there is the so-called Nofollow tag. This has no effect on the function of a link, but is the indicator for Google that it is a paid link.
In its guidelines, Google explicitly stipulates that paid links must also be marked accordingly. Of course, we comply with this, for example, by marking the links of the joint ad accordingly.

Split test, A/B test for mailings

A split test (or A/B test) helps to optimise campaigns in the long term. To do this, the recipient group of an email campaign is divided into two halves with the help of a random generator. Each half receives a slightly modified email. This can be a slightly changed content, a different subject line or even a different variation. It is important that only one parameter is changed at a time, because otherwise the cause-effect relationship would no longer be clear.
After sending, the opening rate, click rate or other measured values are used to determine which half performed better.
Through meaningful split tests, one gathers very valuable knowledge for optimising future campaigns.
At wein.plus we have been using split tests for many years to optimise our own mailings and customer campaigns. We would be happy to help you use this knowledge to optimise your standalone mail or your advertising in the newsletter.

Resolution of image files

The resolution of image files is given in pixels (pixels). This means pixel height x pixel width.

Although many graphics programmes suggest this: A specification in dpi (dots per inch) is not meaningful for online use, as there are no defined length specifications on screens.

But how many pixels are needed? In the past it was relatively simple. An image was displayed on a website in a certain pixel size and it had to be made available in this pixel size. Today, this is no longer so simple for two reasons:
1. With responsive Webpages, which adapts to the end device, the display size of images also changes. So there is no longer a fixed display size.
2. More and more screens with HDPI resolution are coming onto the market. This means that an image of the same size is displayed at 1.5 times (hdpi), 2 times (xhdpi), 3 times (xxhdpi) or even 4 times (xxxhdpi) the density. This results in a visibly sharper display.

At wein.plus we also require a relatively high resolution for uploading logos and labels etc.. We want to be able to display your images at least in xhdpi. However, we are happy to accept even higher resolutions in order to be able to show xxhdpi or xxxhdpi as well.

Bounce rate

The bounce rate is a measurement of the number of visitors to a webpage or website who only visit one page and leave after visiting this one page without any other measurable interaction. For example, they land on a website via Google, it does not meet their expectations and they continue googling on other sites. It is important to understand that the bounce rate of a single page does not refer to the number of page impressions of this page, but to the number of entries to this page. A high bounce rate on a page that is not typically an entry page (e.g. shopping cart) is therefore usually completely unproblematic.
The higher the bounce rate, the more problematic it is. Reasons for high bounce rates can be too long loading times, lack of adaptation to mobile devices, deterrent design or other reasons.
Of course, there are also many bounces that are completely normal. A good example is the glossary of wein.plus. People google for a wine term, land in the glossary, read the information and return satisfied. Therefore, the bounce rate also depends very much on the type of website. For e-commerce shops, one speaks of usual bounce rates in the range of 20% to 40%.
By the way, a too high bounce rate is also a ranking criterion for Google, so pages with a high bounce rate are listed worse in the search results.

Interested in online marketing for the wine industry?

We have set up a group on Facebook exclusively for business members where we discuss tips and tricks for online marketing in the wine industry: